|Electromagnetic methods of fundoscopy: transient waves TEM and NANOTEM
The office has the following geophysical instruments: GDP-32 receiver (6 channels), ZT 30 Transmitter (max output current 30A), NT 20 Transmitter (max output current 20A), NANOTEM receiver, XMT-32 Controller and Magnetic sensors TEM-3 (of the american company ZONGE ENGINEERING).
For the processing and interpretation of the measurements we use DATPRO software and STEMINV.
To receive measurements the Tem provisions applied are: In Loop, Moving Loop and Fix Loop.
The depth of the geophysical exploration, depending on the conductivity of the subsoil, the layout and the dimensions of the bronchi (loops), may be more than 1200m.
Electromagnetic methods of fundometry:
- Controlled Source Audio- frequency Magneto Tellurics (CSAMT)
- Natural source magnetotellurics (MT) and audio-frequency magnetotellurics (AMT)
The office has the following geophysical instruments: GDP-32 receiver (6 channels), ZT 30 Transmitter (max output current 30A), XMT-32 Controller andMagnetic sensors ANT-3 και ANT-4 (of the american company ZONGE ENGINEERING).
For the processing and interpretation of the measurements the software used is: DATPRO, CSAMT, EM2D and SCS2D.
The depth of the geophysical exploration, depending on the used measurement receiving frequency (0.125 to 8,000 Hz), the dimensions of the dipole (transmitter - receiver) and the conductivity of the subsurface, can be more than 1500m.
|Electromagnetic method of GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar)
The office has four Ground Penetrating Radar systems, three of the Swedish company MALA and one of the Norwegian company 3d-Radar. These systems can perform two-dimensional and three dimensional imaging of the targets that are to be geophysically explored. The systems are:
1. The 3D-Radar GPR system. This system has pioneered next generation 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (3D GPR) using step frequency radar technology and innovative multi channel antenna design. The Antenna arrays are:
- Model B1847, with continuous frequency coverage from 200MHz to 2.0GHz, 1.8 meter array length and 47 antennas elements.
- Model B1823, with continuous frequency coverage from 100MHz to 2.0GHz, 1.8 meter array length and 23 antennas elements.
For the processing and interpretation of GPR measurements the software used will be: Slice v.7, Examiner, Reflex and Reflex3D.
2. The Mala ProEx system (Professional Explorer) with its shielded antennas of 250MHz, 500MHz, 1000MHz, 1600MHz, 2300MHz and the RTA antennas of 25-30MHz, 50MHz and 100MHz.
3. The GPR system GX HDR (Ground Explorer High Dynamic Range) with the shielded high frequency antennas of the Swedish House of Mala Geoscience, the central frequencies of which are 80MHz, 160MHz, 450MHz and 750MHz. The geophysical instrumentation used (MALA GX system), built with HDR technology, delivers unprecedented data quality and performance. For the processing and interpretation of GPR measurements the software used will be: Slice v.7, Objectmapper, Geovision and RADExplorer.
4. The Mala GPR Borehole, (Professional Explorer borehole logging system), with two pairs of optical (four-stranded) cables, 800m long each, and its un shielded borehole antennas of: 100MHz and 250MHz. measurement devices: Downhole και Crosshole.
For the processing and interpretation of the measurements the software used is: Radinter and Wintomo.
The depth of the geophysical exploration, depending on the antenna used and the conductivity of the subsoil ranges from 0.30cm up to 50m.
|Electromagnetic method EMI (Time Domain)
The office has two exploration systems of the company GEONICS Canada, which can perform two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging of targets that are to be geophysically explored. The first system is the detector Geonics EM61 MK2 High Power, which is the most widely used detector for prospection UXO's and archaeometric survey. Its position is determined using the Global Positioning System RTK GPS.
The system can detect metallic or non-metallic targets at depths of up to 8m, depending on their size.
The second system is the detector Geonics EM63 which is mainly used for the categorization and orientation of the UXO's (unexploded explosives) or otherwise buried metal objects.
|Electromagnetic method SLINGRAM
The office has two geophysical systems (EMAC 36 and HF EMAC 180) and the measurement interpretation software Slingram, of the company MALA Sweden.
The emission frequencies of the two systems are 3.6 and 18.1 kHz respectively.
|Electromagnetic VLF method
ΤThe office has the WADI geophysical instrument and the measurement interpretation software SECTOR and RAMAC, of the company ABEM Sweden.
The office has the base station, the Magnetometer – Gradiometer G856 and the measurement interpretation software MAGMAP and MAGPLOT , of the american company GEOMETRICS.
|Seismic methods: reflection, refraction, Crosshole and Downhole
The office has the seismic recording equipment BISON 9048 - 48 channel seismograph and TERRALOC MARK 6 - 24 channel seismographof the swedish company ABEM. The auxiliary equipment includes the necessary cables, seismic sources and 150 horizontal / vertical geophones of different frequencies (6Hz to 14 Hz). The interpretation of the measurements is performed with the help of specialized software (WINSISM, SEISIMAGER etc.)
The seismic profiles can grow to a length of up to 480 meters.
|Electrical methods: Electrical tomography, Complex resistivity and geoelectric fundoscopy of specific electrical resistance or conductivity (RES) , spontaneous potential (SP) and induced polarization (IP)
The office has the following four electrical tomography systems which can perform two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging of the subsurface:
- LUND Imaging system (TERRAMETER SAS 1000 (1 channel, max output current 1A & max output power 100W) plus electrode selector ES464 (4 channel & 64 electrodes)) of the swedish company ABEM.
- LUND Imaging system (TERRAMETER SAS 4000 (4 channel, max output current 1A & max output power 100W) plus elector selector ES464 (4 channel & 64 electrodes)) of the swedish company ABEM.
- TERRAMETER LS (4 channel, 64 electrodes max output current 2.5A & max output power 250W) of the swedish company ABEM.
- MX-30 Multiplex Switch (30 channels, 30 electrodes max output current 5A & max output power 2500W), GDP-32 receiver (6 channels) and ZT 30 Transmitter (max output current 30A), of the american company ZONGE ENGINEERING.
The accessories include electrodes (sold or not) and 81 electrode electrical tomography wire, spaced 2m, 5m, 10m, 25m and 50m, which make it possible that the length of scans be from 160m to 4000m from the beginning. At the same time, these cables allow us to apply the Roll along process, during which a much larger number of electrodes can be used, while at the same time the profiles of the tomographies can be developed as much as necessary in order to achieve the objectives of the geophysical research. For the interpretation and presentation of results the software used is the programs RES2DINV and RES3DINV, of GEOTOMO company.
For the realization of geoelectrical depth soundings (fundoscopy) of specific electrical resistance or conductivity (RES), spontaneous potential (SP), induced polarization (IP) and electrical conductivity, and depending on the desired depth of geophysical exploration the machinery used is: Terrameter Sas 1000,Terrameter Sas 4000, Terrameter LS and the system MX-30 Multiplex Switch - GDP-32 receiver - ZT 30 Transmitter. The office has the appropriate electrodes and cable of lengths up to 5km for Wenner and Sclumberger arrays. For the interpretation of the results the software used is IPI2WIN and RESIX PLUS programs.
The depth of the geophysical survey using electrical tomography can be extended up to 700 meters.
||The office has the following systems:
- Haferland Borehole Loggings system.Maximum depth of geophysical exploration 500m. Minimum drilling diameter 80mm. Continuous recordings of the electrical resistance are performed (single focus point resistance, three or four point lateral or normal sensitivity measurements 16 inch (short) or 64 (long) of natural radiation (gamma ray) and spontaneous potential (SP) of the formations drilled, as well as of the conductivity, temperature and speed of movement of water (flow meter) of the underground aquifers.
- System of visual vertical measurement of drilling. The maximum depth of the geophysical exploration is 500m. The minimum internal drilling diameter is 120mm (5 inchs). Continuous visual monitoring of the deviation of the drilling from the vertical axis. Field of measurements ± 4ο. Accuracy of measurement 0.1 degree.
- Portable image and video recording system by PASI srl company. Continuous high resolution shots at depths up to 600m. Minimum internal drilling diameter: 80mm.
- Portable robotic camera system (image and video recording) by RICO Gmbh.
Continuous oriented high resolution shots at depths up to 200m. Minimum internal drilling diameter 90mm.
- Robotic remote-controlled pan & tilt cameras, surveillance and inspection.
- Scanprobre portable image recording and drilling videotaping system. Continuous high-resolution shots at depths of up to 450m. Minimum internal diameter of drilling 60mm.
- Systems of the american company Hydrolab for continuous recording and monitoring (Loggings) of the quality of groundwater. They also provide the possibility of early warning in case of change in the physical and chemical characteristics of water. We have the following systems: H2O Reporter, datasonde and minisonde models 4, 4a and MS5. For the analysis and presentation of the measurements the programs used are: Hydras 3 LT and Aquachem. The maximum depth of precipitation in water is 200m. The minimum drilling diameter is 60mm. Up to 12 parameters are controlled and continuously recorded, concerning the quality of water, the main of which are: Temperature, Conductivity, Salinity, Depth, pH, ORP, Dissolved Oxygen, Turbidity, Ammonium, Nitrate, Chloride, TDG.
- Instruments (HQ40D) of the company Hache-Lange are used to record the physicochemical characteristics of groundwater (Ph, conductivity, temperature, redox potential and dissolved oxygen). The maximum depth of precipitaton in water is 80m. The minimum drilling diameter is 40mm.
- Motor geophysical machine of the Mercedes type, 410_D (No. Circ. ME 105 375). It can perform seismic - electric - electromagnetic geophysical measurements and borehole loggings at depths of up to 500 meters. It is equipped with special cameras (pan & tilt) monitoring wells and pipelines of the house IBAK (Argus & Rax 11.7). There is the possibility of moving the camera within the pipeline to a length of up to 450 meters. The inside diameter of the pipeline or drilling is 100mm.